A translation is a type of transformation that is isometric (isometric means that the shape is not distorted in any way). A translation of a graph, whether its sine or cosine or anything, can be thought of a 'slide'. To translate a graph, all that you have to do is shift or slide the entire graph to a different place.
Vertical Translations of Sine and Cosine graphs
This translation expresses a vertical shift downwards by 1.